Day: March 25, 2024

Global Market Survey

Launch Vehicles
Payload (kg) Company Country Launch Cost ($M) Price ($/kg) Funding ($M) Launch Class Orbit Altitude Tech Type HQ Location Description
20,000 Arianespace/Avio Italy 170 8,500 Public Medium, Heavy LEO Rocket Colleferro Vega & Ariane launch vehicles
45,000 Blue Origin USA 0 0 Small, Heavy LEO Rocket Kent, WA Lowering the cost of access to space with reusable launch vehicles
19,000 Mitsubishi Heavy Industries Japan 112.5 5,921 Public Medium LEO Rocket Tokyo, Tokyo Launch vehicle manufacturer and launch services provider
8,000 Northrop Grumman USA 80 10,000 Public Small, Medium LEO Rocket Falls Church, VA Designs, manufactures, and operates launch vehicles, propulsion systems, and satellites and related components
300 Rocket Lab USA 4.9 16,333 257.31 Small LEO Rocket Huntington Beach, CA The first rocket company and launch site for cubesat payloads in New Zealand
63,800 SpaceX USA 90 1,411 5784 Heavy, Super Heavy LEO Rocket Hawthorne, CA SpaceX designs, manufactures, and launches advanced rockets and spacecraft
17,800 United Launch Alliance USA 99 5,562 Joint Venture Medium, Heavy LEO Rocket Centennial, CO A joint venture between Lockheed Martin and Boeing, ULA produces the Vulcan, Atlas and Delta Launch Vehicle Families
36 UP Aerospace USA 0 0 0.72 Small Suborbital Rocket Highlands Ranch, CO UP Aerospace is a suborbital space launch and flight test service provider
300 iSpace China 5 16,667 275.00 Small LEO Rocket Beijing iSpace is a Chinese private space launch company developing the Hyperbola rocket family
500 Virgin Orbit/VOX Space USA 12 24,000 Small LEO Plane, Rocket Long Beach, CA The small payload orbital launch sister company to Virgin Galactic
204 Astra Space USA 2.5 12,255 100.00 Small LEO Rocket Alameda, CA Providing routine launch access to Earth orbit for entrepreneurs and enterprises
1,000 Firefly Aerospace USA 15 15,000 23.16 Small LEO Rocket Cedar Park, TX Developing the Firefly Alpha launch vehicle; highest payload performance with the lowest cost per kg to orbit in its vehicle class
1,250 Relativity Space USA 10 8,000 184.54 Small LEO Rocket Los Angeles, CA Designing an orbital-class launch vehicle that’s autonomously constructed
0 Strato Ukraine 0 0 Small Suborbital Balloon Kiev Launching sratospheric balloons for research and promotional purposes
4,000 Landspace China 0 0 361.30 Small, Medium LEO Rocket Beijing Commercial launch vehicle manufacturer and space launch provider in China
1,350 ABL Space Systems USA 12 8,889 49.00 Small LEO Rocket El Segundo, CA Building rockets to launch small satellites
100 Exos Aerospace USA 0 0 9.09 Small Suborbital Rocket Caddo Mills, TX Selling reusable launch vehicles for small, sub-orbital scientific/experimental payloads
200 One Space China 3.2 16,000 116 Small LEO Rocket Beijing Building a private 3-stage nanosatellite launch vehicle in China
300 PLD Space Spain 0 0 18.94 Small LEO Rocket Elche, Alicante A Euro startup developing tech for suborbital & orbital launch services, dedicated to small payloads and nanosatellites
6,160 Sea Launch/S7 Russia 0 0 Medium GTO Rocket Integrated launch services for the Zenit Launch Vehicle via a mobile sea platform
100 Interstellar Technologies Japan 0.44 4,400 0.35 Small Suborbital Rocket Hokkaido Privately developing rocket engines and suborbital launch vehicles in Japan
773 Launcher USA 10 12,937 Small LEO Rocket New York, NY A team on a 10-year journey to deliver small satellites to orbit.
200 LinkSpace China 4.5 22,500 Small LEO Rocket Beijing Developing reusable launch vehicle technology for orbital payloads in China
5,000 Maritime Launch Services Canada 45 9,000 Medium LEO Rocket Halifax, Nova Scotia Building up Canada’s NewSpace industry as the first private launch provider in Canso, Nova Scotia.
500 OHB/COSMOS International Germany 0 0 Joint Venture Small LEO Rocket Bremen Developing a small launcher for low cost delivery to LEO
220 Orbex United Kingdom 0 0 39.53 Small LEO Rocket London, England Launch services for small, micro and nano satellites
63 Perigee Aerospace South Korea 2 31,746 12.00 Small LEO Rocket Daejeon Developing Blue Whale 1, a micro launch vehicle
500 Skyrora United Kingdom 12.6 25,200 4.85 Small LEO Rocket Edinburgh, Scotland Cost effective small satellite launch services from the United Kingdom
600 Earth to Sky USA 4.5 7,500 5.25 Small LEO Rocket Huntsville, AL Providing launch services to LEO at an affordable cost
220 Equatorial Space Systems Singapore 4.5 20,455 0.19 Small LEO Rocket Singapore Developing Volanis, a hybrid small-launch vehicle operated from a ocean platform
4,000 Galactic Energy China 0 14,400 43.00 Small, Medium LEO Rocket Developing the Ceres-1 and Pallas-1 launch vehicles
400 Gilmour Space Australia 0 25,000 17.62 Small LEO Rocket Pimpama, Queensland Developing the ERIS launch vehicles to provide reliable and cost-effective access to space
5 Green Launch USA 0 0 0.50 Small LEO Other Edmond, OK Green Launch is a technology created to revolutionize and expand our access to space
160 Microcosm USA 4.2 26,250 Small LEO Rocket Torrance, CA Developing the Demi-Sprite Launch System
10 Pipeline2Space (by HyperSciences) USA 1 100,000 Small LEO Other Spokane, WA Using RAM-accelerators to change the economics of space launch
500 Rocket Crafters USA 9 18,000 2.00 Small LEO Rocket Cocoa, FL Developing the STAR3D (Safe, Throttleable, Affordable, Reliable, 3D-Printed) Hybrid Rocket Engines and the Intrepid-1 smallsat launcher
100 Space Darts Russia 0.1 1,000 15.00 Small LEO Rocket Moscow Mass production of on-demand launchers for small sats
1,000 Space Transportation (Lingkong Tianxing) China 0 0 18.00 Small LEO Rocket, Spaceplane Beijing Launcher manufacturer aimed at developing reusable vehicles for small payloads
0 Space Vector USA 0 0 Small LEO Rocket Chatsworth, CA Space Vector has launched 37 vehicles to date with program turnaround times as short as 8 months
100 SpinLaunch USA 0.5 5,000 77.94 Small LEO Other Long Beach, CA Small satellite space launch via a kinetic launch system
250 Stofiel Aerospace USA 5 20,000 Small LEO Balloon, Rocket St. Louis, MO Balloon-based small satellite launcher
0 Stratolaunch USA 0 0 LEO Spaceplane Seattle, WA Developing Black Ice, a fully reusable space plane initially optimized for cargo launch
1,500 WAGNER Industries USA 3 2,000 Small LEO Spaceplane St Petersburg, FL WAGNER is a simple, reliable, low-cost launch systems company
0 X-Bow Launch Systems USA 0 0 Small LEO Rocket Huntsville, AL Dedicated to providing affordable access to orbit for commercial and government payloads
0 0-G Launch USA 0 25,000 Small LEO Plane, Rocket Washington, D.C. Developing the Space Jet air-launch platform
25 Acrux Aerospace Technologies Brazil 1 40,000 0.05 Small LEO Rocket Iguassu Falls, Paraná Designing the Montenegro nanolauncher for launches at a very competitive price
25,000 Advanced Rockets Corp USA 4.1 164 0.07 Heavy LEO Rocket Los Angeles, CA The Dynamics Enhanced Launch Vehicle is designed for a life of over 400 reuses with very minimal maintenance and rapid turnarounds
40 ALTAIR (Onera) France 0 0 Small LEO Plane, Rocket Air launch space transportation using an automated aircraft and an innovative rocket
100 ARCA Space Corporation USA 1 10,000 Small LEO Rocket Las Cruces, NM Single Stage to Orbit (SSTO) rocket leveraging aerospike engine technology launching to low earth orbit
10 Bagaveev USA 0.25 25,000 0.96 Small LEO Rocket Half Moon Bay, CA Dedicated nanosatellite launch provider
150 Bellatrix Aerospace India 2 13,333 3.00 Small LEO Rocket Bangalore, Karnataka Orbital launch vehicles (rockets) and electric propulsion systems
30 Beyond Earth USA 0.9 30,000 Small LEO Rocket Menlo Park, CA Providing rapid response small satellite launch vehicles for government and commercial customers
50 bluShift Aerospace USA 0 0 Small LEO Rocket Brunswick, ME Cleaner, cheaper, hybrid launch vehicles for cubesats.
30 C6 Launch Systems Canada 0 0 Small LEO Rocket Toronto, Ontario Provding dedicated launch services for cube and nanosatellites
4,500 Deep Blue Aerospace China 0 0 3.00 Small, Medium LEO Rocket Beijing Committed to reducing the cost of entering space via reusable launch products
80 Hudson Space Systems USA 760,000.000 9,500 0.10 Small Suborbital Rocket Hoboken, NJ Developing a next generation of reusable launch vehicles for microgravity research
1,500 iRocket USA 0 0 Small LEO Rocket New Hyde Park, NY Building the first fully autonomous, and fully reusable small launch vehicle for affordable access to space
150 Laros Russia 3 20,000 Small LEO Rocket Moscow Developing the LAROS-RC2 orbital carrier and accompanying mobile launch infrastructure
150 Pangea Aerospace Spain 4.54 30,267 1.10 Small LEO Rocket Barcelona, Catalonia Enabling Low cost access to space with the Aerospike engined reusable Small satellite launch vehicle “MESO”
31 Phoenix Launch Systems USA 0.75 34,000 0.50 Small LEO Rocket Las Vegas, NV Developing responsive launch services and products for the nanosatellite industry
150 Reaction Dynamics Canada 0 30,000 1.15 Small LEO Rocket St. Laurent, Quebec Making it affordable for companies and universities to launch small satellites into orbit
2,600 Ripple Aerospace Norway 0 0 Medium LEO Rocket Kristiansand Bringing back the “sea-launch” concept with full-force!
300 RocketStar USA 6 20,000 Small LEO Rocket New York, NY We offer rideshare and dedicated launch opportunities at severe discounts to other launch providers, and can go from first conversation to launch in 18 months or less
0 SpaceRyde Canada 0 0 0.15 Small LEO Balloon, Rocket Toronto, Ontario SpaceRyde offers affordable, on-schedule, dedicated launch for small sats
0 Thor Launch Systems (by 8 Rivers) USA 0 0 LEO Other Durham, NC Enabling the mass commercialization of space by moving beyond chemical rockets
100 Agnikul Cosmos India 1.2 12,000 3.58 Small LEO Rocket Chennai, Tamil Nadu Designing, manufacturing, and launching orbital-class launch vehicles
150 B2Space United Kingdom 0 0 Small LEO Balloon, Rocket Bristol, England Developing a balloon-launched vehicle for smallsat payloads
500 Black Arrow Space Technologies United Kingdom 10 20,000 0.10 Small LEO Rocket Swindon, England Developing a unique seaborne launch system
16 Celestia Aerospace Spain 0.2 12,500 Small LEO Plane, Rocket Barcelona, Catalonia Personalized engineering support and dedicated airborne orbital launch platform
5 CubeCab USA 0.25 50,000 Small LEO Rocket Mountain View, CA LEO launch provider for 3U cubesats
0 Firehawk Aerospace USA 0 0 Small Rocket Indialantic, FL Developing Firehawk-1, a two-stage small satellite launcher
200 Fore Dynamics USA 0 0 Small LEO Rocket Placentia, CA Affordable and reliable small satellite launch system for LEO, SSO, and GEO missions
500 HyImpulse Germany 0 0 Small LEO Rocket Kocher, Baden-Württemberg We are developing a mini launcher using disruptive technologies to provide low-cost small-sat launch opportunities for Europe and the whole world.
500 INNOSPACE South Korea 12.5 25,000 1.50 Small LEO Rocket Sejong City Developing hybrid small satellite launch vehicles
150 LIA Aerospace Argentina 0 25,000 Small LEO Rocket Creating the small-sat launch vehicle of the future
180 Lin Industrial Russia 0 60,000 0.15 Small LEO Rocket Moscow A Russian startup, developing small satellite launch vehicles
0 LongShot USA 0 0 Small LEO Other Developing a non-traditional hypervelocity launch system
500 New Rocket Technologies Russia 9 18,000 Small LEO Rocket Moscow Building light, two-stage rockets for small satellite launch
500 Orbital Access United Kingdom 0 0 Small LEO Spaceplane Prestwick, Scotland Global air-launch services for small payloads
1,150 POLARIS Germany 0 0 Small LEO Spaceplane Developing a novel, reusable hypersonic and space launch system
160 S-Motor China 0 0 Small LEO Rocket Beijing Developing a three-stage solid-propellant launch vehicle
10 Space Ops Australia 0 0 Small LEO Rocket Redfern, New South Wales Developing a reusable two-stage orbital-class launch vehicle
1,200 SpaceHorizon Canada 0 0 Small LEO Rocket Ottawa, Ontario Striving to design, build, and launch rockets, in and from Canada
70 Venture Orbital Systems France 0 0 Small LEO Rocket Paris Developing a reactive, reliable and cost-efficient nano-launcher
500 Vogue Aerospace USA 2 4,000 0.10 Small LEO Rocket Naples, FL Developing a unique launch vehicle and propulsion system
45,360 Wave Motion Launch USA 0 0 Heavy LEO Other Seattle, WA Building a space launch system for sending hardened satellites and bulk cargo into space
0 AvalonSpace United Kingdom 0 0 Rocket Bristol, England Vertically launching low-cost orbital payloads from the UK
50 CubeSat Solutions Thailand 0 0 Small Suborbital Rocket Chiang Mai Designer of low-weight, low-cost satellites and small launching vehicles
0 Fenix Space USA 0 0 LEO Plane, Rocket San Bernardino, CA Developing a reliable tow-glider launch system
50 Jarmyn Enterprise Space Australia 0 0 Small LEO Rocket Mawson Lakes, South Australia Building a single-stage to orbit launch system dedicated to small payloads
0 JiuZhou YunJian China 0 0 0.43 Rocket Beijing Manufacturing of launch vehicles, rocket engines, spacecraft, and ancillary equipment
1,000 Marcom South Africa 8 8,000 Small LEO Rocket Johannesburg Developing the Cheetah small launch vehicle
0 New Ascent USA 0 0 0.11 Other Annapolis, MD Redefining launch from the ground up
0 OmSpace Rocket and Exploration India 0 0 Small LEO Rocket Bharuch, Gujarat Building a reusable small launch vehicle
250 Project S3 Croatia 0 0 Small Spaceplane Zagreb Aiming to provide orbital launches of small satellites for the most affordable prices
3,000 Rocketplane Global USA 0 0 Medium LEO Spaceplane Green Bay, WI Spaceplane based satellite launch
100 Rocketsan Turkey 0 0 Small LEO Rocket Ankara Rocketsan is developing a micro-satellite launch system for the Turkish government
20,000 Seres Space Exploration Technology China 0 0 Heavy LEO Rocket Beijing Developing a reusable launch vehicle named ‘Tianmeng’
20,000 ShipInSpace United Kingdom 0 2,000 Heavy LEO Rocket Witney, England Working on a very low-cost Launcher to LEO
100 Smallspark Space Systems United Kingdom 0 12,692 Small LEO Rocket Cardiff, Wales Developing vertical launch systems to provide the ability for the United Kingdom to effectively, reliably and affordably deliver satellites into orbit from the planned major UK vertical launch spaceports
0 Spaceborne Uzbekistan 0 0 LEO Rocket Tashkent Building low cost, single stage and highly reusable launch vehicles
240 SpaceTrek China 0 0 Small LEO Rocket Beijing Customized launch services for sub-orbital and orbital payloads
200 Deywoss One USA 0 0 Small LEO Spaceplane Merepoint, ME Developing PROTEUS, an innovative hybrid and autonomous launcher for small sats
0 Halo Aerospace USA 0 0 Suborbital Balloon, Rocket West Palm Beach, FL Providing launch services via HABs and sounding rockets
680 LEO Launcher USA 0 0 Small LEO Plane, Rocket Houston, TX Long range heavy lift aircraft horizontal launches
0 Space One Luxembourg 0 0 LEO Other Luxembourg Developing electromagnetic launch systems to change how we launch payloads into space
0 The Rocket & Satellite Company Pakistan 0 0 LEO Rocket Karachi Offering low-cost space launch systems
500 United Frontiers USA 0 2,000 Small LEO Rocket Port Canaveral, FL SpaceBox is a suborbital launch and recovery platform designed to enable affordable access to space for educational, professional, consumer and hobbyist payloads

ATLAS dissemination events – Full list

Paris Space Week 2021 Paris – France 03/2021 Tailor-made cyberalloys 
IRAS Additive Manufacturing Workshop Virtual 05/07/2021 Additive Manufacturing of Components for Rocket Propulsion
TMS 2022 conference  Anaheim – USA 03/2022 Development framework advancing state-of-the-art for space propulsion components.
ESA-ESTEC ICAM22 Noordwijk – ESTEC – The Netherlands 03/2022 Computational materials design framework for refractory complex concentrated alloys advancing space propulsion components.
1st ESA Int. conference on advanced manufacturing for air, space, and land transportation Virtual 11/03/2022 Metal Additive Manufacturing of Space Components @ DLR
Plansee seminar  Plansee – Austria


05/2022 Development of materials design framework for refractory complex concentrated alloys advancing space propulsion components
12th EASN International Conference on Innovation in Aviation and Space for opening New Horizons



Barcelona – Spain


10/2022 Special session dedicated to ATLAS



·Sara Bagherifard, Mario Guagliano; Advanced Design of High-Entropy Based Materials for Space Propulsion (ATLAS), an introduction.

·Fuyao Yan; An Integrated Computational Materials Engineering approach to advance AM refractory complex concentrated alloys for ultra-high temperature applications.

·Marcello Lepore (UoD contribution); A multi-physics procedure to identify critical zone of failure in space thrusters.

·Sara Bagherifard, M. Guagliano; Analyzing the effect of feedstock properties in cold spray technology.

·Jan Haubrich, Joachim Gussone, Fuyao Yan, Ida Berglund, Andreas Stark, Norbert Schell, Guillermo Requena; Laser powder bed fusion of refractory complex concentrated alloys for space propulsion components

Graphene Week 2022 Munich – Germany 05-09/09/2022 Discussion with stakeholders about the materials’ challenges in the space sector for propulsion and navigation control
DLR materials colloquium Cologne – Germany 06/12/2022 ·Development framework for the design of novel alloys in space propulsion systems

·Ti-based alloys and refractory complex concentrated alloys for additive manufacturing

15th European Space Conference Brussels 25/01/2023 Presentation of the ATLAS projects and results
EPIC Workshop Naples + Virtual 09-12/05/2023 Discussion about the contribution that ATLAS could have in the propulsion sector
Graphene Week 2023 Gothenburg – Sweden 04-08/09/2023 The importance of high-entropy alloys in the space sector – discussion with stakeholders – Airbus, Leonardo
DLR materials colloquium Cologne, Germany 12/2023 Integrated computational materials engineering and its digital transformation


Keynote lecture at European Space Agency – materials science working group Noordwijk – ESTEC – The Netherlands 18/01/2024 The importance of materials for aerospace and the role of high-entropy alloys – Discussion with the group and ESA officers
The Fourth International Conference on Damage Mechanics Baton Rouge, Louisiana, USA, May 15 – 18, 2023 Ultimate and low cycle fatigue predictions of a space thruster built with a new refractory high entropy alloy
X International Conference of Computational Methods for Coupled Problems in Science and Engineering Chania, Crete, Greece 5-7 June 2023 Thermo-mechanical structural optimization of a chemical propulsion satellite thruster using lattice structures

Symposium to celebrate the 100th.  of the Italian Air Force


Naples / Pozzuoli 09-10/11/2023


Organization of the Symposium – Presentation of the materials’ challenges in the hypersonic sectors including the high-entropy alloys –Participation to the roadmap “the future of hypersonic” as a contributing author (team leader of the chapters on materials of the future – Prof Angelo Maligno)

Roadmap Chapter on innovative materials including high-entropy alloys for propulsion, protection, and thermal resistance

Innovation and leadership in Aerospace – ILA Berlin – Germany 22-24/06/2022 Presentation of the ATLAS results to stakeholders
International Astronautical Congress – IAC Paris – France 19-21/09/2022 Discussion with stakeholders –Leonardo, Space cargo unlimited, Axiom, Space Application System
PuzzleX 2022 Barcelona 15/11/2022 – 17/11/2022 The importance of high-entropy alloys materials in the future space propulsion landscape – discussion with stakeholders (venture, entrepreneurs)
Rome Future Week Rome 13-15/09/2023 Presentation of ATLAS as an enabling project for developing new and improved materials for Space applications – Discussion with the head of the commercialization at the European Space Agency
PuzzleX 2023 Barcelona 04/11/2023 – 11/11/2023 The importance of high-entropy alloys materials in the future space propulsion landscape – discussion with stakeholders (venture, entrepreneurs)
Business in Space Growth Network Noordwijk – ESTEC – The Netherlands 17-19/01/2024 Stakeholders’ meetings

Here we are! the full list of ATLAS publications

  • An inclusive numerical framework to assess the role of feedstock features on the quality of cold spray deposits, A. Ardeshiri Lordejani, D. Colzani, M. Guagliano, S. Bagherifard, Materials & Design, Volume 224, 2022, 111374
  • Numerical Simulation of Cold Spray Bonding for CrFeNi Medium-Entropy Alloy , Zehtabi, N.P., Ardeshiri Lordejani, A., Guagliano, M. and Bagherifard, S. (2022), Adv. Eng. Mater., 24: 2200603
  • An experimental validation of unified mechanics theory for predicting stainless steel low and high cycle fatigue damage initiation, G. Canale, M. LEpore, S. Bagherifard, M. Guagliano, A. Maligno, Forces in Mechanics 10 (2023), 100162
  • An inclusive numerical framework to assess the role of feedstock features on the quality of cold spray deposits, Lordejani, A. A., Colzani, D., Guagliano, M., & Bagherifard, S. (2022), Materials & Design, 224, 111374.
  • Numerical Simulation of Cold Spray Bonding for CrFeNi Medium‐Entropy Alloy, Zehtabi, N. P., Ardeshiri Lordejani, A., Guagliano, M., & Bagherifard, S. (2022). Advanced Engineering Materials, 24(10), 2200603.
  • Recent advancements in deposition of High Entropy Alloys using cold spray technology, Magesh Kumaravel, Sara Bagherifard, Mario Guagliano; Submitted to Journal of Thermal Spray Technology, Springer, Under review, February 2024
  • Elucidating the challenges in the development and deployment of refractory complex concentrated alloys for additive manufacturing, Magesh Kumaravel, Yazdan Eynolghozzat, Joachim Gussone, Fuyao Yan, Amir Ardeshiri Lordejani, Jan Haubrich, Guillermo Raquena, Ida Berglund, Mario Guagliano, Sara Bagherifard; Submitted to Additive Manufacturing, Elsevier, With editor February 2024
  • A surrogate multiscale model for the design of high entropy alloys; David Gonzalez, Eugene Pavlov, Stefano Valvano, Angelo Maligno submitted to Acta Materialia, Elsevier, under review, February 2024.
  • Thermo-mechanical homogenisation procedure of high-entropy alloy lattice structures; Stefano Valvano, Angelo Maligno; in preparation (submission in March 2024).
  • Thermo-mechanical structural optimisation of a chemical propulsion satellite thruster; S. Valvano, A. Maligno; in preparation (submission in April 2024).